Diante de todo esse caos que a Vale vem causando no Maranhão e no Pará, vale perguntar:

Publicado em   26/fev/2011
por  Caio Hostilio

Estado ou iniciativa privada? Qual deles é a melhor opção para os serviços públicos? Qual deles atende melhor à sociedade? Não existiria, talvez, uma terceira opção que conciliasse esses dois mundos aparentemente inconciliáveis? Tenho dúvidas!!! Combinar o melhor desses dois mundos, sem radicalismos, sem distorções ideológicas e sem paixão, parece algo impossível, mas seria muito inteligente e vantajoso do que optar por um dos extremos. Sei que não é fácil, até porque a maioria das pessoas parece já ter sua preferência, embora adotada e consolidada sem muita racionalidade. E, quase sempre, distorcida por preconceitos.

Querem alguns bons exemplos de visão deformada e distorcida sobre o tema? Quase todos já ouvimos a opinião generalizada de que o Estado e suas empresas são sempre ineficientes, corruptos e perdulários. É uma afirmativa tão ridícula quanto a de sentido oposto de que Estado e as empresas públicas são sempre eficientes e livres de corrupção.

Outra visão ultrapassada é a do mercado que se regula a si próprio e é capaz de atender a todas as necessidades e resolver todos os problemas da sociedade  moderna.

Dificilmente o cidadão faz as perguntas essenciais: “Por que estatizar?” e “Por que privatizar?” Além do porquê é preciso saber como privatizar. Poucos fazem a pergunta essencial: “Em que condições pode funcionar a privatização ou a estatização?”

Na verdade, existe prova concreta do papel mais relevante do Estado moderno que pode ser reconhecida no Brasil nos diversos casos exemplares de empresas estatais, instituições públicas e iniciativas governamentais, cujo papel e impacto foram decisivos para o desenvolvimento do País, como Banco do Brasil, Universidade de São Paulo (USP),  Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp), Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional (CSN), Petrobrás, Instituto Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (ITA), Embraer, Embrapa, Embratel, Telebrás, Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES).

E notem que cada uma dessas grandes iniciativas teve líderes à altura do desafio que deviam enfrentar. A Embratel, criada em 1965, iniciou a grande decolagem da infraestrutura de telecomunicações do Brasil, com seus troncos de microondas de alta capacidade, a comunicação internacional via cabos submarinos e via satélite, tendo sido considerada uma das melhores de telecomunicações de longa distância do mundo. Seu grande líder: general Francisco de Souza Galvão.

A Telebrás, em sua primeira fase, de 1972 a 1985, fez um bom trabalho – e só não fez muito mais porque os sucessivos governos militares e civis decidiram enxugar seus superávits, reduzindo-lhe a capacidade de investimento. Seus dois grandes líderes: comandante Euclides Quandt de Oliveira e general José Antonio de Alencastro e Silva.

O Centro Tecnológico da Aeroespacial (CTA) e o Instituto de Tecnologia Aeronáutica (ITA) – criados pelo marechal do ar Casimiro Montenegro Filho, visionário e idealista – foram, em grande parte, responsáveis pela competência industrial brasileira no setor e pelo sucesso futuro da Embraer, concebida e implantada sob a liderança e competência de Ozires Silva.Contudo, sua privatização não foi um bom negócio para indústria aeronáutica brasileira.

Vale a pena mencionar, por fim, a Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) – criada pelo engenheiro-agrônomo José Mendes Barcellos – como um, entre tantos exemplos para comprovar a afirmativa de que existem, sim, empresas e iniciativas estatais eficientes e bem administradas, que são capazes de revolucionar um setor. 

Por outro lado, tem os casos calamitosos. Essas instituições mereceram  respeito e reverência, mas que se tornaram como verdadeiros símbolos de corrupção, retrocesso e vergonha, como foi o caso da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos .

Quando o assunto é telecomunicações, a coisa se transforma em duas faces do problema. A face positiva com o sucesso indiscutível do aspecto quantitativo, tanto dos investimentos quanto da expansão da infraestrutura. Daí resultaram benefícios como a universalização dos serviços, cuja densidade saltou de apenas 14 telefones por 100 habitantes, para mais de 120. Por outras palavras: para cada brasileiro, há mais de um telefone em serviço.

A face negativa do setor privatizado decorre hoje dos elevados preços, da carga brutal de impostos, da baixa competição, do esvaziamento político da Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (Anatel) e da falta de atualização da legislação setorial.

Querem ver uma privatização mal conduzida? A do setor elétrico, que foi praticamente concluída sem uma lei geral (ou marco regulatório) e sem que a agência reguladora (Aneel) tivesse sido instalada. Problemas semelhantes ocorreram

Como podemos ver, a maioria dos problemas que o País enfrenta hoje nos setores privatizados, a começar das telecomunicações, decorre da frouxidão do governo, que não fiscaliza, não formula políticas públicas ambiciosas, não aplica a lei, não desonera os serviços dos tributos escorchantes, não exige o cumprimento rigoroso dos padrões de atendimento e de qualidade do serviço, não pune com rigor as concessionárias faltosas.

Agora sabe por que a Vale faz todo esse escarcéu  no Maranhão e no Pará? Porque falta ao País também o mínimo de cultura regulatória e de fiscalização séria e rigorosa, capazes de assegurar ou exigir melhor desempenho das empresas privatizadas.

Em lugar de uma desgastante disputa entre os defensores dos dois modelos, com acusações intermináveis de lado a lado, o que realmente vale a pena é refletirmos sobre as diferenças fundamentais entre as duas opções. E, do ponto de vista ideológico, fugirmos dos extremos, popularmente conhecidos como extrema direita e extrema esquerda.

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  Publicado em: Governo

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